Bibliography: Psychological or Mental Basis for MCS
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

Bibliography: Psychological or Mental Basis for MCS


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Bibliography of scientific articles, editorials, books, book chapters and reports that support findings of a psychological basis and/or that critique findings of a physical/organic basis for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity disorders

(excluding those published in journals of Clinical Ecology and letters to editors)

137 Published Through September 1999, Alphabetically Sorted by Author

Compiled by Albert Donnay, MHS
MCS Referral & Resources
6101 Gentry Lane, Baltimore, MD 21210
Please call (410) 889-6666 to inform us of any additions or corrections

Comprehensive MCS Bibliography:

1. American Academy of Allergy. 1980. American Academy of Allergy: statement by the Executive Committee. J.Allergy Clin.Immunol. 66:431-431.

2. American Academy of Allergy. 1981. American Academy of Allergy: position statements--controversial techniques. J.Allergy Clin.Immunol. 67:333-338.

3. American Academy of Allergy and Immunology, E.C. 1986. Clinical ecology. J.Allergy Clin.Immunol. 78:269-271.

4. American Academy of Allergy, A.a.I. 1999. Position statement: idiopathic environmental intolerances. J Allergy Clin Immunol 103:36-40.

5. American College of Physicians. 1989. Clinical ecology. [see comments]. Ann.Intern.Med. 111:168-178.

6. American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs. 1992. Clinical ecology. [see comments]. J.A.M.A. 268:3465-3467.

7. Amundsen, M.A., N.P. Hanson, B.K. Bruce, T.D. Lantz, M.S. Schwartz, and B.M. Lukach. 1996. Odor aversion of multiple chemical sensitivities: recommendation for a name change and description of successful behavioral medicine treatment. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 24:Pt 2):S116-8

8. Andine, P., L. Ronnback, and B. Jarvholm. 1997. Successful use of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivities. Acta Psychiatr Scand 96:82-83.

9. Apfel, B. and H. Csef. 1995. [Fear of environmental poisons--justified fear or psychiatric disorder?]. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 45:90-96.

10. Banov, C. and J. Ring. 1996. Clinical Ecology Syndrome. ACI International 8:106-108.

11. Bardana, E.J. and A. Montanaro. 1991. Chemical sensitivity. In Current Therapy in Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology. L.M. Lichtenstein and A.S. Fauci, editors. Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis.

12. Bardana, E.J., Jr., A. Montanaro, and M.T. O'Hollaren. 1988. Building-related illness. A review of available scientific data. Clin.Rev.Allergy 6:61-89.

13. Barsky, A.J. and G.L. Klerman. 1983. Overview: hypochondriasis, bodily complaints, and somatic styles. Am.J.Psychiatry 140:273-283.

14. Barsky, A.J. and J.F. Borus. 1995. Somatization in the era of managed care. JAMA 274:1931-1934.

15. Barsky, A.J. and J.F. Borus. 1999. Functional somatic syndromes. Ann Intern Med 130:910-921.

16. Benignus, V.A. 1997. Systematic considerations in the area of multiple chemical sensitivity. Environ Health Perspect 105:485

17. Binkley, K.E. and S. Kutcher. 1997. Panic response to sodium lactate infusion in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome [see comments]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99:570-574.

18. Black, D.W., A. Rathe, and R.B. Goldstein. 1990. Environmental illness. A controlled study of 26 subjects with '20th century disease' [see comments]. J.A.M.A. 264:3166-3170.

19. Black, D.W. 1993. Environmental illness and misdiagnosis--a growing problem. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 18:23-31.

20. Black, D.W., A. Rathe, and R.B. Goldstein. 1993. Measures of distress in 26 "environmentally ill" subjects. Psychosomatics 34:131-138.

21. Black, D.W. 1996. Iatrogenic (physician-induced) hypochondriasis. Psychosomatics 37:390-393.

22. Black, D.W. 1996. Psychiatric perspective of persons with "environmental illness". [Review] [38 refs]. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 14:337-355.

23. Black, D.W., C. Okiishi, J. Gabel, and S. Schlosser. 1999. Psychiatric illness in the first-degree relatives of persons reporting multiple chemical sensitivities. Toxicol Ind Health 15:410-414.

24. Blaschko, S., T. Zilker, and H. Forstl. 1999. [Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IPI)--formerly multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)--from the psychiatric perspective]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 67:175-187.

25. Bock, K.W. and N. Birbaumer. 1997. MCS (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity): cooperation between toxicology and psychology may facilitate solutions of the problems: commentary. Hum Exp Toxicol 16:481-484.

26. Bock, K.W. and N. Bribaumer. 1998. Multiple chemical sensitivity: Shadigung durch Chemikalien oder Nozeboeffekt. Deutsches Artzeblatt 95:A-91-A-94

27. Bolla-Wilson, K., R.J. Wilson, and M.L. Bleecker. 1988. Conditioning of physical symptoms after neurotoxic exposure [see comments]. J.Occup.Med. 30:684-686.

28. Bolla, K.I. and R. Roca. 1994. Neuropsychiatric sequelae of occupational exposure to neurotoxins. In Occupational Neurology and Clinical Neurotoxicology. M.L. Bleecker and J.A. Hansen, editors. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland. 133-159.

29. Bolla, K.I. 1996. Neurobehavioral performance in multiple chemical sensitivities. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 24:Pt 2):S52-4

30. Boxer, P.A., M. Singal, and R.W. Hartle. 1984. An epidemic of psychogenic illness in an electronics plant. J.Occup.Med. 26:381-385.

31. Brodsky, C.M. 1983. 'Allergic to everything': a medical subculture. Psychosomatics 24:731-2, 734-6, 740-2.

32. Brodsky, C.M. 1983. Psychological factors contributing to somatoform diseases attributed to the workplace. The case of intoxication. J.Occup.Med. 25:459-464.

33. Brodsky, C.M. 1987. Multiple chemical sensitivities and other environmental illness: a psychiatrist's view. Occup.Med. 2:695-704.

34. Brodsky, C.M., M.A. Green, and E.S. Ogrod. 1989. Environmental illness: does it exist? Patient Care 15 November 1989:41-59.

35. Brown, R.S. and P.R. Lees-Haley. 1992. Fear of future illness, chemical AIDS, and cancerphobia: a review. Psychol.Rep. 71:187-207.

36. California Medical Association Scientific Board Task Force on Clinical Ecology. 1986. Clinical ecology--a critical appraisal. West.J.Med. 144:239-245.

37. Colligan, M.J. and M.J. Smith. 1978. A methodological approach for evaluating outbreaks of mass psychogenic illness in industry. J.Occup.Med. 20:401-402.

38. Colligan, M.J., M.A. Urtes, C. Wisseman, R.E. Rosensteel, T.L. Anania, and R.W. Hornung. 1979. An investigation of apparent mass psychogenic illness in an electronics plant. J.Behav.Med. 2:297-309.

39. Colligan, M.J. 1981. Mass psychogenic illness: some clarification and perspectives. J.Occup.Med. 23:635-638.

40. Dalton, P. 1996. Odor perception and beliefs about risk. Chem Senses 21:447-458.

41. Dalton, P., C.J. Wysocki, M.J. Brody, and H.J. Lawley. 1997. The influence of cognitive bias on the perceived odor, irritation and health symptoms from chemical exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 69:407-417.

42. DeHart, R.L. 1992. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity - What is It? In Multiple Chemical Sensitivities: Addendum to Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology. AnonymousNational Academy Press, Washington, DC. 35-39.

43. DeHart, R.L. 1998. Multiple chemical sensitivity [editorial; comment] [see comments]. Am Fam.Physician. 58:652-654.

44. Dietert, R.R. and A. Hedge. 1996. Toxicological considerations in evaluating indoor air quality and human health: impact of new carpet emissions. Crit Rev Toxicol 26:633-707.

45. Ducatman, A.M. 1993. MCS: Multiple negative findings- Implications, history, and predictions. Occup Environ Med 7:73-75.

46. Dudley, J. 1986. Psychiatric assessment of patients with "20th Century Disease". Can Med Assoc J 134:472-474.

47. Ford, C.V. 1997. Somatization and fashionable diagnoses: illness as a way of life [In Process Citation]. Scand J Work Environ Health 23:Suppl 3:7-16

48. Gilbert, A.N., S.C. Knasko, and J. Sabini. 1997. Sex differences in task performance associated with attention to ambient odor. Arch Environ Health 52:195-199.

49. Goodman, M. 1995. Illness as lifestyle. Can.Fam.Physician 41:267-270.

50. Gori, G.B. 1996. The role of objective science in policy development: evidence versus conjecture. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 24:Pt 2):S3-7

51. Gothe, C.J., C. Molin, and C.G. Nilsson. 1995. The environmental somatization syndrome. Psychosomatics 36:1-11.

52. Gots, R.E., T.D. Hamosh, W.G. Flamm, and C.J. Carr. 1993. Multiple chemical sensitivities: a symposium on the state of the science. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 18:61-78.

53. Gots, R.E. 1993. Medical hypothesis and medical practice: autointoxication and multiple chemical sensitivities. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 18:2-12.

54. Gots, R.E. 1995. Multiple chemical sensitivities--public policy [editorial]. J.Toxicol.Clin.Toxicol. 33:111-113.

55. Gots, R.E. 1996. Multiple chemical sensitivities: distinguishing between psychogenic and toxicodynamic. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 24:Pt 2):S8-15

56. Green, M. 1985. Questions and Answers: 'Allergic to everything': 20th-Century Syndrome. J.A.M.A. 253:842

57. Grieco, M.H. 1982. Controversial practices in allergy. J.A.M.A. 247(22):3106-3111.

58. Guglielmi, R.S., D.J. Cox, and D.A. Spyker. 1994. Behavioral treatment of phobic avoidance in multiple chemical sensitivity. J.Behav.Ther.Exp.Psychiatry 25:197-209.

59. Gupta, K., L. Perharic, G.N. Volans, V.S. Murray, and J.P. Watson. 1997. Apparent poisoning by wood preservatives: an attributional syndrome. J Psychosom Res 43:391-398.

60. Habermann, E. 1998. [Poison and nocebo--2 aspects of toxicology]. Med Klin 93:113-118.

61. Hall, E.M. and J.V. Johnson. 1989. A case study of stress and mass psychogenic illness in industrial workers. J.Occup.Med. 31:243-250.

62. Haller, E. 1993. Successful management of patients with multiple chemical sensitivities on an inpatient psychiatric unit [see comments]. J.Clin.Psychiatry 54:196-199.

63. Harrison, M. 1992. Semiconductor manufacturing hazards. In Hazardous Materials Toxicology, Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. J.B. Sullivan and G.R. Krieger, editors. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland. 472-504.

64. Harrison, P.J. and R.C. Pearson. 1989. Olfaction and psychiatry [see comments]. Br.J.Psychiatry 155:822-828.

65. Hartman, D.E. 1998. Missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses of environmental toxicant exposure. The psychiatry of toxic exposure and multiple chemical sensitivity. Psychiatr Clin North Am 21:659-70, vii.

66. Heinzow, B. 1999. Psychosocial factors in the occurrence of environmental intolerances [In Process Citation]. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed 202:153-164.

67. Herr, C. and T. Eikmann. 1998. [Environmental-medical diagnosis and therapy. Hasty diagnosis of unspecified environmental syndromes should be avoided]. Fortschr Med 116:26-29.

68. House, R.A. and D.L. Holness. 1997. Investigation of factors affecting psychogenic illness in employees in a fish-packing plant. Am J Ind Med 32:90-96.

69. Howard, L.M. and S. Wessely. 1993. The psychology of multiple allergy [editorial] [see comments]. B.M.J. 307:747-748.

70. Jewett, D.L. 1992. Diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitivity syndrome. Toxicol.Ind.Health 8:111-123.

71. Kahn, E. and G. Letz. 1989. Clinical ecology: environmental medicine or unsubstantiated theory? [see comments]. Ann.Intern.Med. 111:104-106.

72. Kahn, E. and G. Letz. 1990. Clinical ecology: environmental medicine or unsubstantiated theory? [letter; comment]. J.Allergy Clin.Immunol. 85:437-439.

73. Kay, A.B. 1993. Alternative allergy and the General Medical Council [published erratum appears in BMJ 1993 Jan 23;306(6872):261] [see comments]. BMJ 306:122-124.

74. Kradin, R.L. 1997. The psychosomatic symptom and the self: a sirens' song. J Anal Psychol 42:405-423.

75. Krop, J.J. 1993. Clinical ecology and its role in diagnosis of chronic diseases caused by environmental pollution. Indoor air pollution as a major factor. Folia Med.Cracov. 34:105-119.

76. Kurt, T.L. 1995. Multiple chemical sensitivities--a syndrome of pseudotoxicity manifest as exposure perceived symptoms. J.Toxicol.Clin.Toxicol. 33:101-105.

77. Lees-Haley, P.R. and R.S. Brown. 1992. Biases in perception and reporting following a perceived toxic exposure. [Review] [60 refs]. Percept Mot Skills 75:531-544.

78. Levine, R.J., D.J. Sexton, F.J. Romm, B.T. Wood, and J. Kaiser. 1974. Outbreak of psychosomatic illness at a rural elementary school. Lancet 2:1500-1503.

79. Leznoff, A. 1994. Multiple chemical sensitivity: Myth or reality? Pract.Allergy.Immunol. 8:48-52.

80. Leznoff, A. 1997. Provocative challenges in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity [see comments]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99:438-442.

81. Maguire, A. 1978. Psychic possession among industrial workers. Lancet 1:376-378.

82. Mahler, V., A. Schmidt, M. Fartasch, T.H. Loew, and T.L. Diepgen. 1998. [Value of psychotherapy in expert assessment of skin diseases. Recommendations and indications for additional psychotherapy evaluation in expert assessment from the viewpoint of dermatology]. Hautarzt. 49:626-633.

83. Mahler, V., A. Schmidt, M. Fartasch, T.H. Loew, and T.L. Diepgen. 1998. [In Process Citation]. Hautarzt. 49:626-633.

84. McDonagh, A.F. and D.M. Bissell. 1998. Porphyria and porphyrinology--the past fifteen years. Semin Liver Dis 18:3-15.

85. Modan, B., T.A. Swartz, M. Tirosh, C. Costin, E. Weissenberg, A. Donagi, C. Acker, M. Revach, and G. Vettorazzi. 1983. The Arjenyattah epidemic. A mass phenomenon: spread and triggering factors. Lancet 2:1472-1474.

86. Montanaro, A. and E.J.J. Bardana. 1991. The chemically sensitive patient. In E.J. Bardana, Jr., A. Montanaro, and M.T. O'Hollaren, editors. Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia. 255-266.

87. Murphy, L.R. and M.J. Colligan. 1979. Mass psychogenic illness in a shoe factory. A case report. Int.Arch.Occup.Environ.Health 44:133-138.

88. Pearson, D.J., K.J. Rix, and S.J. Bentley. 1983. Food allergy: how much in the mind? A clinical and psychiatric study of suspected food hypersensitivity. Lancet 1:1259-1261.

89. Pirages, S.W. and C.L. Richard. 1997. Multiple chemical sensitivities. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 58:94-97.

90. Richter, E. 1993. Multiple chemical sensitivity: respect the observations ... suspect the interpretations? [editorial]. Arch.Environ.Health 48:366-367.

91. Rosenberg, S.J., M.R. Freedman, K.B. Schmaling, and C. Rose. 1990. Personality styles of patients asserting environmental illness [see comments]. J.Occup.Med. 32:678-681.

92. Salvaggio, J.E. 1994. Use and misuse of biomarker tests in "environmental conditions". [Review]. Journal.of Allergy &.Clinical.Immunology 94:380-384.

93. Salvaggio, J.E. 1994. Psychological aspects of "environmental illness," "multiple chemical sensitivity," and building-related illness. J Allergy Clin Immunol 94:Pt 2):366-70

94. Salvaggio, J.E. and A.I. Terr. 1996. Multiple chemical sensitivity multiorgan dysesthesia, multiple symptom complex, and multiple confusion: problems in diagnosing the patient presenting with unexplained multisystemic symptoms. Crit Rev Toxicol 26:617-631.

95. Schottenfeld, R.S. 1987. Workers with multiple chemical sensitivities: a psychiatric approach to diagnosis and treatment. Occup.Med. 2:739-753.

96. Schottenfeld, R.S. 1992. Psychologic sequelae of chemical and hazardous materials exposures. In Clinical principles of environmental health. J.B. Sullivan Jr. and G.R. Krieger, editors. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. 463-470.

97. Shapiro, G.G. and J.A. Anderson. 1988. Controversial techniques in allergy. Pediatrics 82:935-937.

98. Shorter, E. 1997. Multiple chemical sensitivity: pseudodisease in historical perspective. Scand J Work Environ Health 23 Suppl 3:35-42:35-42.

99. Shusterman, D., J. Balmes, and J. Cone. 1988. Behavioral sensitization to irritants/odorants after acute overexposures. J.Occup.Med. 30:565-567.

100. Simon, G.E., W.J. Katon, and P.J. Sparks. 1990. Allergic to life: psychological factors in environmental illness. Am.J.Psychiatry 147:901-906.

101. Simon, G.E. 1992. Epidemic multiple chemical sensitivity in an industrial setting. Toxicol Ind Health 8:41-46.

102. Simon, G.E. 1992. Psychiatric treatments in multiple chemical sensitivity. Toxicol.Ind.Health 8:67-72.

103. Simon, G.E. 1994. Psychiatric symptoms in multiple chemical sensitivity. Toxicol.Ind.Health 10:487-496.

104. Simon, R.I. 1998. The credible forensic psychiatric evaluation in multiple chemical sensitivity litigation. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 26:361-374.

105. Sirois, F. 1974. Epidemic hysteria. Acta Psychiatr.Scand.Supp. 252:1-46.

106. Small, G.W. and J.F. Borus. 1983. Outbreak of illness in a school chorus. Toxic poisoning or mass hysteria? N.E.J.M. 308:632-635.

107. Smith, M.J., M.J. Colligan, and J.J. Hurrell. 1978. Three incidents of industrial mass psychogenic illness: a preliminary report. J.Occup.Med. 20:399-400.

108. Sparks, P.J., G.E. Simon, W.J. Katon, L.C. Altman, G.H. Ayars, and R.L. Johnson. 1990. An outbreak of illness among aerospace workers [see comments]. West.J.Med. 153:28-33.

109. Sparks, P.J., W. Daniell, D.W. Black, H.M. Kipen, L.C. Altman, G.E. Simon, and A.I. Terr. 1994. Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: a clinical perspective. II. Evaluation, diagnostic testing, treatment, and social considerations. J.Occup.Med. 36:731-737.

110. Spyker, D.A. 1995. Multiple chemical sensitivities--syndrome and solution. J.Toxicol.Clin.Toxicol. 33:95-99.

111. Stahl, S.M. and M. Lebedun. 1974. Mystery gas: An analysis of mass hysteria. J.Health Soc.Behav. 15:44-50.

112. Staudenmayer, H. and J.C. Selner. 1987. Post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS): escape in the environment [editorial]. J Clin.Psychol. 43:156-157.

113. Staudenmayer, H. and J.C. Selner. 1990. Neuropsychophysiology during relaxation in generalized, universal 'allergic' reactivity to the environment: a comparison study [see comments]. J.Psychosom.Res. 34:259-270.

114. Staudenmayer, H., M.E. Selner, and J.C. Selner. 1993. Adult sequelae of childhood abuse presenting as environmental illness. Ann.Allergy 71:538-546.

115. Staudenmayer, H., J.C. Selner, and M.P. Buhr. 1993. Double-blind provocation chamber challenges in 20 patients presenting with multiple chemical sensitivity. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 18:44-53.

116. Staudenmayer, H. and J.C. Selner. 1995. Failure to assess psychopathology in patients presenting with chemical sensitivities. J.Occup.Environ.Med. 37:704-9; discussion 710.

117. Staudenmayer, H. 1996. Clinical consequences of the EI/MCS "diagnosis": two paths. [Review] [56 refs]. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 24:Pt 2):S96-110

118. Staudenmayer, H. 1997. Multiple chemical sensitivities or idiopathic environmental intolerances: psychophysiologic foundation of knowledge for a psychogenic explanation [editorial; comment]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99:434-437.

119. Staudenmayer, H. 1999. Environmental Illness: Myth and Reality. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.

120. Stenn, P. and K. Binkley. 1998. Successful outcome in a patient with chemical sensitivity. Treatment with psychological desensitization and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Psychosomatics 39:547-550.

121. Stewart, D.E. and J. Raskin. 1985. Psychiatric assessment of patients with "20th-century disease" ("total allergy syndrome"). Can.Med.Assoc.J. 133:1001-1006.

122. Stewart, D.E. and J. Raskin. 1986. Hypersensitivity disorder and vernacular science. Can.Med.Assoc.J. 134:1344-1346.

123. Stewart, D.E. 1987. Environmental hypersensitivity disorder, total allergy and 20th century disease: a critical review. Can.Fam.Physician 33:405-409.

124. Sutton, W.L. 1969. Psychiatric disorders and industrial toxicology. Int.Psychiatry Clin. 6:339-351.

125. Terr, A.I. 1986. Environmental illness. A clinical review of 50 cases. Arch.Int.Med. 146:145-149.

126. Terr, A.I. 1987. Multiple chemical sensitivities: immunologic critique of clinical ecology theories and practice. Occup.Med. 2:683-694.

127. Terr, A.I. 1987. Clinical ecology. J.Allergy Clin.Immunol. 79:423-426.

128. Terr, A.I. 1989. Clinical ecology in the workplace. J.Occup.Med. 31:257-261.

129. Terr, A.I. 1993. Immunological issues in multiple chemical sensitivities. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 18:54-60.

130. Terr, A.I. 1993. Multiple chemical sensitivities [editorial; comment]. Ann.Intern.Med. 119:163-164.

131. Terr, A.I. 1994. Multiple chemical sensitivities: immunologic critique of clinical ecology theories and practice. J.Allergy Clin.Immunol. 94:362-366.

132. Tollefson, L. 1993. Multiple chemical sensitivity: controlled scientific studies as proof of causation. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 18:32-43.

133. Van den Bergh, O., K. Stegen, and K.P. Van de Woestijne. 1997. Learning to have psychosomatic complaints: conditioning of respiratory behavior and somatic complaints in psychosomatic patients. Psychosom Med 59:13-23.

134. Waddell, W.J. 1993. The science of toxicology and its relevance to MCS. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 18:13-22.

135. Weaver, V.M. 1996. Medical management of the multiple chemical sensitivity patient. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 24:Pt 2):S111-5

136. Wolf, C. 1998. [In Process Citation]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 128:1217-1222.

137. Wolf, C. 1998. ["Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome"]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 128:1217-1222.

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